Decrypting the Cryptic #8: Homophones

I heard it was time for some explanations…

Welcome to Decrypting the Cryptic #8! In this series, we’ll be taking apart common cluing conventions used in American cryptic crosswords to build your confidence in solving a puzzle variety that can be, as its name implies, especially challenging. Sounds like it’s time for homophones! (See what I did there?)

Cryptic crosswords make lots of use of homoNYMs — that is, a word that has two meanings with different etymologies (and possibly different pronunciations). We explored that in the double definitions post. But why stop at homonyms when you can play with homoPHONEs as well? Homophones are words that sound the same, even though they are spelled differently, like BASE and BASS (the latter in its “low voice” sense, not its “food fish” sense) or HEAR and HERE.

When a word is being clued using a homophone, there will always be an indicator of some kind that you’re to sound out what’s being clued rather than taking the clued word directly. (There will still be a direct cluing of the word in the direct definition; this is just in the wordplay portion of the clue.) These indicators can include, but are not limited to:

  • A reference to hearing: “I heard,” “in the ear,” “listened to”
  • Words about speaking: “orally,” “out loud,” “said,” “recited”
  • “Reportedly” and its synonyms
  • “On the radio,” “broadcast,” “over the airwaves,” etc.

Now that I’ve told you some common indicators, here’s a simple example:

Example #1: Ram heard objection (4)

The answer is BUTT. The straight definition is “Ram,” or BUTT in the sense of head-butting someone. It’s also a homophone for BUT, which is an “objection,” and the word “heard” indicates that you’re looking for a homophone. And remember how I told you that enumerations are themselves clues? That’s how you know that you’re to look for BUTT and not BUT. (Without an enumeration or a puzzle grid, you’d have to guess, because the indicator word is adjacent to both “Ram” and “objection.”)

Note that, unlike with anagrams, in which the constructor must give you actual words to be anagrammed, NOT synonyms of those words, in the case of homophones the constructor is free to clue a synonym of the homophone. (We can’t go too easy on you — they’re called cryptics, after all!)

The thing about simple homophone examples is that they’re kind of boring. The best cryptic constructors (of whom I do not consider myself one — yet!) are able to string together some pretty elaborate homophonetic (is that a word? I’m declaring it one if it isn’t) phrases that are hilarious when you figure them out. Here’s an example straight Out of Left Field:

Example #2: Revolutionary permitted to be recited — and recited audibly (4,5) (Clue credit: Joshua Kosman and Henri Picciotto, Out of Left Field #6; subscription required to view full puzzle)

This one’s extra tricky because there are a couple of words — “recited” and “audibly” that could be the indicator. In the end it’s “to be recited” that is the indicator, and “audibly” is part of the definition. The answer is READ ALOUD, or “recited audibly” in the straight definition. But READ ALOUD is also homophonetic with RED ALLOWED, in which “red” comes from “Revolutionary” in the clue and ALLOWED comes from “permitted.”

Homophones aren’t as common as the other clue types we’ve discussed thus far because, as I mentioned, the simple ones are kind of boring and the complicated ones are hard to get to as a constructor. I, for one, have not yet managed to produce a good multi-word homophonetic clue yet, but I’ll build a whole damn puzzle around it and then throw a party when I do.

That explains homophones for ya! Feel free to ask questions in the comments, and don’t forget to check out #crypticclueaday on Twitter. I post a new clue each day using that hashtag (other constructors have been adding their own as well), and every week on #explanationfriday I give the solutions and a brief explanation of how to derive them. These clues are a great way to hone your cryptic solving skills and build your confidence up to solving a full puzzle.

Tough as Nails Themeless #15

After my self-indulgent 74-worder, here’s a proper 68-word themeless for y’all. Enjoy!

I also tried using the .puz to PDF site someone posted to generate an ink-saving PDF. The layout is different, but it should work for you. If you prefer the old layout, print the file from Across Lite instead.

Tough as Nails Themeless #15 – Across Lite

Decrypting the Cryptic #7: Reversals

Sometimes in cryptics, it’s time to back that thing up.

Welcome to Decrypting the Cryptic #7! In this series, we’ll be taking apart common cluing conventions used in American cryptic crosswords to build your confidence in solving a puzzle variety that can be, as its name implies, especially challenging. Today, we’re taking on double definitions.

Back that thing up, because today we’re taking on reversals! In a reversal, a word or phrase is spelled backwards to create another word or phrase. Unlike with anagrams, the exact text to be reversed does not have to be given to you in the clue — a synonym will do, although sometimes you do get the exact letters to be reversed. And there will always be some kind of indicator word or phrase that lets you know that you’re to reverse the order of the letters. Let’s look at an example.

Example #1: Back-end vessels (4)

The answer is POTS (“vessels,”) which is STOP (“end”) spelled backward; the word “back” indicates that you’re spelling something backwards.

Note that the answer must be POTS, not STOP, because the word “back” appears adjacent to “end” (the synonym for STOP), and not adjacent to “vessels” (the synonym for POTS), which indicates that STOP is to be reversed. So note that the clue “End back vessels (4),” besides being more awkward from a surface sense, is also unfairly ambiguous, because the word “back” is adjacent to BOTH “end” and “vessels” — there is no way to tell which four-letter word is being asked for. 

That being said, you may find the indicator word in the middle of a clue when you’re solving a full puzzle; it’s less than perfectly elegant, but not unfair as long as you have crossings that enable you to choose between the two alternatives. The indicator word can also be in the middle if the word to be reversed is given directly in the clue, as in “Flow back to inhale (4)” for WOLF. WOLF here means “to inhale” in the “wolf your food” sense, and the placement of “back” is not ambiguous because you can reverse the word FLOW to get a synonym for “to inhale,” but so far as I know there is no way to reverse any synonym for “inhale” to get a four-letter synonym for “flow.”

There aren’t THAT many words and phrases that reverse neatly into another word or phrase just as they are, so reversals are frequently paired with some other clue type. Here’s an example.

Example #2: Ran back into sore, chaotic situation (7)

The answer is ANARCHY. Again, the indicator word for the reversal is “back.” Turn the word RAN around to get the letter string NAR, which is inserted into the word ACHY (“sore”) to create ANARCHY, a “chaotic situation.” (Remember those containers we talked about?)

Of course, “back” isn’t the only way to indicate a reversal. Here are some other words that should tip you off that you’re to spell something backward:

  • Sometimes we’ll just be nice and say “backward” or “reverse [in any of its tenses]”!
  • Expressions for turning around, like “turned about,” “about-face,” or “U-turn”
  • Clues about going right to left instead of left to right: “turns left,” “go west”
  • “Wrong way” or other phrases that indicate that you’ve been given the answer in the wrong direction
  • Appropriate gymnastics terms like “somersault” and “backflip”
  • Words that indicate backward motion, like “retreat”

Note that when you’re solving a puzzle, you’re going to have some Down entries. In Down clues, you’ll also get some indicator words that I won’t say NEVER appear in Across clues, but are more likely to appear there than in Across clues:

  • Indications that an answer is to be printed going up instead of coming down: “up,” “going north”
  • Synonyms for standing something on end, like “erect”
  • Expressions for turning something upside down, like “inverted” and “flip over”
  • Words that indicate ascent, like “climb” and “rise” — because the answer is supposed to be going down, but instead the wordplay indicates a word that’s climbing up

That’s it for reversals! Feel free to ask questions in the comments, and don’t forget to check out #crypticclueaday on Twitter. I post a new clue each day using that hashtag (other constructors have been adding their own as well), and every week on #explanationfriday I give the solutions and a brief explanation of how to derive them. These clues are a great way to hone your cryptic solving skills and build your confidence up to solving a full puzzle.

Tough as Nails Self-Indulgent Bonus

6/27/09 🙂 Photo by Chad Johnson.

Hey, look, it’s a bonus puzzle! Can I really call it a themeless if there’s a running thread of self-indulgence through the entire thing? Be nice, it’s both my 17-Across AND my 9-Down.

Somebody posted asking me to make the PDFs ink savers. I don’t know how to do that. I usually make the PDFs from Across Lite. If you know how to make ink-saver grids from Across Lite or Crossfire, tell me and I can start doing that. Otherwise, you get what you pay for!

Also, it has 74 words. Like I said, self-indulgent. I think you’ll like it anyway. 🙂

Tough as Nails Self-Indulgent “Themeless” – Across Lite

Decrypting the Cryptic #6: Double Definitions

Welcome to Decrypting the Cryptic #6! In this series, we’ll be taking apart common cluing conventions used in American cryptic crosswords to build your confidence in solving a puzzle variety that can be, as its name implies, especially challenging. Today, we’re taking on double definitions.

Last time around, we took a break from explaining any one individual cluing convention to break down the fact that all cryptic clues have a straight definition component and a wordplay component. The reason I did that is that I didn’t want to explain double definition clues before laying down a solid explanation of the two parts of a cryptic clue. With a double def, things are a little different. Instead of the clue consisting of a straight definition plus wordplay, you get two straight definitions. As with other clue types, the dividing line between the two definitions is for you to figure out. 

Does it not sound terribly cryptic to have two definitions of the same word? Constructors avoid double-def clues where the two definitions are simply synonyms of each other; in fact, the two senses of the word being clued should not even be etymologically related to each other. Check out this elegant example from Nate Cardin:

Example #1: Scooter was blue (5) (Clue credit: Nate Cardin, April 22)

The answer is MOPED. Pronounce it with two syllables — “mo-ped” — and a moped is a “scooter.” Pronounce it with just one — rhymes with “coped” or “doped” — and “moped” is the past tense of “mope.” In that sense, “moped” means “was blue,” in which “blue” means “down in the dumps” and not the literal color that the surface sense of the clue seems to imply.

Here’s another example I made up on the fly:

Example #2: Fish instrument (4)

The answer is BASS, which, pronounced with a short A, is a “fish,” and pronounced with a long A, is a musical “instrument.” As I mentioned in last week’s post, unlike standard crosswords, cryptics are more freewheeling about whether definitions and answers must be interchangeable with each other. You’d surely chafe at seeing the clue “Instrument” for BASS in a standard American crossword, because there are plenty of instruments that are not basses. But cryptics mess with your head a bit more. Deal with it!

As with charades, there’s no need for an indicator word to show that you’re dealing with a double definition. But these clues are often on the short side, so if you see a clue that’s two or three words long, think about whether it might be a double definition.

That’s it for double definitions! Feel free to ask questions in the comments, and don’t forget to check out #crypticclueaday on Twitter. I post a new clue each day using that hashtag (other constructors have been adding their own as well), and every week on #explanationfriday I give the solutions and a brief explanation of how to derive them. These clues are a great way to hone your cryptic solving skills and build your confidence up to solving a full puzzle.

Decrypting the Cryptic #5: The Basics

“Begin in the middle and work outwards,” said Hope. “Don’t be stuffy.”

–Robin McKinley, Beauty

Beginning in the middle is a bit what I’ve done with Decrypting the Cryptic, since we plunged right into analyzing various conventions used in the wordplay portion of a cryptic clue. However, I presumed a bit of knowledge on your part, which is that a cryptic clue has a straight definition portion and a wordplay portion. This is the basic underpinning of all cryptic clues.

Every cryptic clue can be broken into these two parts. The straight definition clues the word or phrase according to its literal meaning; the wordplay clues the word or phrase in some sort of tricky manner, such as those we’ve talked about in previous posts (and will talk about in more posts to come!). 

You’ll notice I said “parts” and not “halves,” because there is no requirement that the definition and the wordplay be of equal or even similar length. They also don’t have to come in that order, and to make things trickier still, the constructor won’t tell you where the definition ends and the wordplay begins, or vice versa.

I’ll stick to clue types we’ve already discussed (charades, anagrams, containers, and hidden words) to make this explanation easier.

Example #1: A fellow representative (5) (Clue credit: Me, 6/8)

Let’s now break the clue into its two parts: A fellow / representative. Can you guess which half is the definition and which half is the wordplay? Wait for it…wait for it…the wordplay comes first. This is a charades clue in which the letter A is given to you, and “fellow,” which in its surface sense sounds like it means “in the same position as,” actually is being used as a synonym for GENT. So, “fellow” in its noun sense, meaning “gentleman.” Put A and GENT together and you get AGENT, which is a “representative” — so “representative” is the straight definition.

Example #2: Online partner’s advocate (7) (Clue credit: Hypatia, 6/7)

Again, let’s break the clue into its parts: Online partner’s / advocate. Once again, the wordplay comes first: An E-SPOUSE would be an “online partner,” and ESPOUSE means to “advocate.”

These are short clues, but it’s important to note that even if the clue is longer, in American cryptics you will NEVER find one component of the clue in the middle of the other. (I’m told this is not always true of British puzzles. Those tricky Brits!) That is, there are always two discrete components; they won’t mingle or alternate with each other. So if you’re thinking of mixing up some letters from the first word in the clue with some letters in the last word in the clue, for example, get out of that rabbit hole! You probably need to look at the clue in a different way.

Enumerations

Now let’s talk about those little numbers in parentheses next to the clue. They are themselves clues!

In a standard American crossword, unless you’re solving a puzzle intended to be very easy, such as Crosswords With Friends, you won’t be told when the answer is a phrase that has two or more words in it. For example, in Jeff Chen’s NYT puzzle of 3/14/2018, 16-Across, which has eight blank spaces, is clued as “Take dead aim at”; the solver is not told that those eight letters are to be divided into a four and two two-letter words. The answer is the three-word phrase, ZERO IN ON.

In cryptics, perhaps because we constructors try to mess with your head in so many other ways, you WILL be told when it’s time to look for a multi-word phrase. This is done by placing the letter lengths of each word in the phrase in parentheses after the clue, with commas in between. It makes the most sense to look at this in an actual puzzle:

Example #3: Treacherous deceit leading to a drink (4,3) (Clue credit: Joshua Kosman and Henri Picciotto, The Nation #3250; click the “A puzzle from Book 1” link at the link)

If you look at the puzzle grid, you’ll see that this clue (23-Across) points to an answer with seven spaces to fill in. The enumeration of (4,3) means that those seven spaces are to be divided into a four-letter and a three-letter word. The answer is ICED TEA (“drink”); this clue is a combination of an anagram (“Treacherous deceit” means that one is to anagram the letters in DECEIT into ICEDTE) and charades (since “leading to a” simply means “put the letters you already have in front of the letter A”).

Specificity

Backing up to our explanations of straight definitions: This clue illustrates that, in cryptics, straight definitions need not be as specific as they are in standard American crosswords. In a standard crossword, “Drink” would never be acceptable as a clue for ICED TEA; the two are not interchangeable. (All iced teas are drinks, but not all drinks are iced teas!) At a bare minimum, you would need to say “Certain drink,” and even then it wouldn’t be the most elegant clue. In a cryptic, though, there’s other information helping you get to the answer, and so it’s allowed to have a clue that literally defines the answer without specifically defining the answer.

Hope that helps you understand the basics of cryptic clue anatomy! Feel free to ask questions in the comments, and don’t forget to check out #crypticclueaday on Twitter. I post a new clue each day using that hashtag (other constructors have been adding their own as well), and every week on #explanationfriday I give the solutions and a brief explanation of how to derive them. These clues are a great way to hone your cryptic solving skills and build your confidence up to solving a full puzzle.

Decrypting the Cryptic #4: Hidden words

Welcome to the fourth edition of Decrypting the Cryptic! In this series, we’ll be taking apart common cluing conventions used in American cryptic crosswords to build your confidence in solving a puzzle variety that can be, as its name implies, especially challenging.

In Decrypting the Cryptic #3, we explored containers, in which one word is put into another. Now, we’re talking hidden words, in which the answer is provided right for you in the clue, with the letters in order and everything! Usually I do a little explanation first and then give examples, but here it makes sense to dive right in with an example.

Example #1: Silver-mouthed container of a liquid found in Manhattan? (8) (Clue credit: Me, 5/24)

The answer is VERMOUTH, which is “a liquid found in Manhattan?” The question mark indicates that you should not take the definition entirely literally: VERMOUTH is a liquid found in a Manhattan, as in “Stella’s favorite winter cocktail.”

Now look at the clue again: VERMOUTH was right there for you to see all along, in “Silver-mouthed,” and the word “container” was there to point you to the fact that the hyphenated word “silver-mouthed” contains the answer.

Example #2: Squib is in possession of a streaming service (5) (Clue credit: Me, 5/16)

The answer is QUIBI, which is “a streaming service” and also appears in the words “Squib is.” In this case, the words “in possession of” indicate that the answer is held by the phrase.

Like container clues, which we discussed in post #3, hidden-word clues always have some kind of indicator, although it can be quite subtle. In many if not most cases, words that can be used as indicators for hidden words can ALSO be used as indicators for containers, although you’ll never see such a word used both ways in the same clue. So you’ll have to let your mind wander in both of those directions if you see an indicator like:

  • Possession: “has,” “owns,” “holds,” or even simply an apostrophe with S
  • “Restrains” or a synonym
  • Words indicating an enclosure: “surrounds,” “encircles,” “is around,” etc.

How can you tell whether an indicator word is telling you to look for a container or a hidden word? The word itself won’t tell you. But look at the words immediately preceding or following the indicator word. Does a word that matches the enumeration of the answer appear “crossing the border(s)” of those words? If so, does that word sound like it could be defined by the other part of the clue? You’ve probably unearthed the hidden word. If you’re not getting anything that makes sense that way, then try thinking in a container direction instead.

Here’s one more example to help you practice.

Example #3: Beginning of Eugene’s isle (7) (Clue credit: Me, 6/4)

The answer is GENESIS, which means “beginning” and is also contained in the phrase “Eugene’s isle.” I was being tricky in a couple of ways here: First, “beginning” was the definition word, but it’s also used in the wordplay portion of many clues to indicate that you’re to take the first letter of a word and use it as part of the answer. Second, the only clue that you have that you’re dealing with a hidden word is the word “of” — the letters GENESIS are “of” the phrase that follows.

Hope that helps you understand hidden-word clues! Don’t forget to check out #crypticclueaday on Twitter. I post a new clue each day using that hashtag (other constructors have been adding their own as well), and every week on #explanationfriday I give the solutions and a brief explanation of how to derive them. These clues are a great way to hone your cryptic solving skills and build your confidence up to solving a full puzzle.

Decrypting the Cryptic #3: Containers

“I contain multitudes,” said Walt Whitman, who was talking about himself but could also have been describing certain cryptic clues. In this third Decrypting the Cryptic post, we’re talking about containers, a commonly used cluing tactic.

In a container clue, the wordplay portion of the clue indicates one or more letters or words that are to be “contained,” or inserted into, another word. So, unlike charades, in which the clued shorter words appear one after the other, in a container clue, one or more of the words will appear inside another. Before we even get into what this looks like in a clue, let’s just look at a couple of examples:

  • The word STARLING can be broken up into the word TAR inside the word SLING: S(TAR)LING
  • The word SPATE is the letter P contained by the word SATE: S(P)ATE

Container clues will always have some kind of word that indicates that you’re to put one word inside of the other. (Without such an indicator, you’d have a charades clue instead, since the default assumption is that the component words are being clued in the order they appear.) These indicator words can include, but are not limited to:

  • Words related to eating or consumption: “eat,” “swallow,” “gobble up,” “consume”
  • Synonyms for “take”: “grab,” “get,” “ingest”
  • Certain prepositions: “in,” “inside,” “with,” “around,” “outside”
    • When you see a preposition, pay attention! “XY in AB” would indicate “AXYB,” whereas “XY around AB” would indicate “XABY”
  • Words about surrounding: “encasing,” “encircling,” “girding”

Now that you have an idea of what might make you think “container!” when you look at a clue, let’s try some examples.

Example 1: High fashion is out in preserve (7) (Clue credit: Me, May 21)

The answer is COUTURE, or “High fashion,” which is also the word OUT (given directly in the clue) contained by the word CURE (“preserve,” as in the cured-meat sense). The word “in” serves as the indicator that you’re to contain one word inside the other — and, as you can see, the order is important. The fact that I said “out in preserve” rather than “preserve in out” was not just because the latter doesn’t make any surface sense. It’s to indicate that OUT goes into CURE, not the other way around.

Example 2: Oscar winner Blanchett gets a sign to adjust (9) (Clue credit: Also me, May 19; guess I was really into containers that week!)

The answer is CALIBRATE (“to adjust”). Break that up, and you get the word LIBRA (“a sign” — of the zodiac) going into CATE (“Oscar winner Blanchett”). The word “gets” serves as the indicator that a container is involved — and again, the order of the words shows that it’s CATE that gets LIBRA inside, rather than trying to put CATE into LIBRA.

Example 3: Hill worker gets little time to make something more palatable (7)

The answer is SWEETEN (“make something more palatable”). In this case it’s more than one word being contained: SEN, an abbreviation for Senator, or a “Hill worker”, is the word on the outside, and it is “getting,” or containing, the word WEE (“little”) and the letter T, a common abbreviation for “time.”

That’s how containers work. Feel free to ask questions or discuss in the comments!

And don’t forget to check out #crypticclueaday on Twitter. I post a new clue each day using that hashtag (other constructors have been adding their own as well), and every week on #explanationfriday I give the solutions and a brief explanation of how to derive them. These clues are a great way to hone your cryptic solving skills and build your confidence up to solving a full puzzle.